Les Cahiers d’Histoire de la Radiodiffusion, n° 114, octobre-Décembre 2012

img019 La dernière livraison des Cahiers d’Histoire de la Radiodiffusion, n° 114, octobre-Décembre 2012

Il s’agit, cette fois, d’un numéro panaché, établi par Jocelyne TOURNET-LAMMER

Sommaire  :

Michel Amoudry : La TSF et le naufrage du Titanic ;  Jean-Jacques Ledos : Les Débuts de la TSF ; Christophe Bennet : L‘Opéra et la désaffection des compositeurs français au profit de genres émergeants : le cas de la radio des années trente ; Entretien avec Elvina Fesneau : Le Poste à transistors à la conquête de la France ; Jocelyne Tournet-Lammer : Une radio communautaire pour les marins : Antelim II ; Guy Robert et Dave Wilson : 1983 : quelques réflexions sur la radio et « l’éducation de base » ;  Joëlle Girard : Freedom, radio Ladi Lafé.

Rubrique « Ils ont fait la Radio » : Jacques Antoine (1924-2012) ; Jacques Rigaud ( 1932-2012) ; Jean Garretto (1932-2012)

Les Cahiers d’Histoire de la Radiodiffusion sont une publication du Comité d’Histoire de la Radiodiffusion (CRH)

NUMEROS ANCIENS ET THEMES RECENTS DISPONIBLES
N°93 : L’année radiophonique 1957
N° 94 : L’année radiophonique 1977
N° 95 : 1925-1975 : Cinquante ans de musique classique à la radio
N° 96 : L’année radiophonique 1938
N° 97 : L’année radiophonique 1958
N°98 : L’année radiophonique 1978
N° 99 : Éléments pour une histoire de la radio en Algérie (1922-1962)
N° 100 : L’année radiophonique 1939
N° 101 : L’année radiophonique 1959
N° 102 : L’année radiophonique 1979
N° 103 : Grands Hommes – Grandes dates de la Radio – Tableau Synchronique
N° 104 : Premier numéro « Panaché »
N° 105 : L’année radiophonique 1980
N° 106 : Numéro panaché
N° 107 : Pierre Schaeffer 1910-1995 – la traversée d’un siècle
N° 108 : Numéro panaché
N° 109 : L’année radiophonique 1981
N° 110 : Numéro panaché
N° 111 : Histoire de la radio en Belgique francophone
N° 112 : Numéro panaché
N° 113 : L’année radiophonique 1982
Prix unitaire du numéro 9 €

Public Issue Radio: Talks, News and Current Affairs in the Twentieth Century, Hugh Chignell

chignellh_0« Public Issue Radio: Talks, News and Current Affairs in the Twentieth Century« , Hugh Chignell, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2011, ISBN: 9780230247390; 264pp.

Hugh Chignell’s well-researched volume tells the story of the development of current affairs programming on British radio, which, we learn, is inextricably tied to the ‘painfully slow development of news’ programming on the BBC. To explain the significance of the separation and elaboration of these two forms of broadcasting, Chignell begins with the Victorian ‘rigid class hierarchies’(p. 16) separating mere reporters (who dutifully wired the raw facts of unfolding events on the front lines) from highly educated correspondents (who sent their reflective and more subjective pieces by post) (p. 16). This sharp distinction between news and current affairs was unique to the British system and, Chignell argues, it influenced ‘the shape and nature of public issue radio for the rest of the century’ (p. 20).

But, like many distinctions and hierarchies of the Victorian era, the ones that shaped the origins of the BBC’s approach to news and commentary were in for a series of shocks and ironic challenges throughout the 20th century. Under John Reith, the BBC’s first and iconic leader, the Victorian disdain for journalism (and for the newspapers’ tendency towards scandal, hyperbole, and excess) meant that what would become one of the foremost journalistic organizations of the century began with a rather anemic news operation.

Another irony, Chignell calls it an ‘unintended consequence’, was that the early Reithian imperative to air ‘the best that has been thought and said’ on the network gave a soapbox to members of Britain’s cultural elite, many of whom held – and expressed – ’dangerously radical views’. Prominent figures like H. G. Wells, George Bernard Shaw and Leonard Woolf, ‘who were variously socialist, communist, pacifist, atheist, and who held views almost completely at odds with Reith’s own beliefs’, took to the air in the early days of the BBC ‘Talks’ (p. 28). The tug-of-war between conflicting imperatives is inevitable in any institution as large, as consequential, and as closely identified with both a government and a people as the BBC became. For ‘the most famous cultural institution in the world’ these struggles comprise a significant chapter of the history of the 20th century (p. 7).

The splitting of Talks and News into distinct departments began in 1935, and led to the creation of ‘separate cultures and identities’ whose impact can still be felt. In 1935, this separation came during a shift to conservative rule in the government and thus in the possibilities of BBC’s programming. American readers of this book will perhaps be surprised to learn that the NPR (National Public Radio)’s 40 year history of fending off (and also caving in to) charges of ‘left-wing bias’ from conservative elements in the government and the press has a precedent at the BBC starting as early as the 1930s (p. 17). ‘The BBC was under constant pressure from the government … and the right wing press’ (p. 26). Despite the very real pressure exerted from these quarters, and despite his own conservatism, Reith’s refusal to back down from airing controversial broadcasts during the Great Depression provides for some dramatic scenes and challenges the stereotype of him and his network as stuffy and cautious. When summoned by Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald and ordered by him to stop airing broadcasts featuring the voices and experiences of the unemployed:

Reith responded by acknowledging that the government had the power to do this but that if they did he would, ‘at that time in the schedule when the talks should be given, instruct the announcer to declare that the next twenty minutes would be silent because the Government had refused to allow the unemployed to express their views’. The series continued (p. 23).

The Talks department, chivvied by political pressure and by an institutional ‘anxiety’ regarding the airing of controversial matters, shied away from covering some of the most urgent matters in foreign affairs and domestic affairs in the 1930s. Thus the British listening public had little exposure to the brewing calamities in Spain and Germany and, after 1935, to the voices and experiences of those at home suffering the most from the Depression. This problem was most urgent, of course, in the case of the rise of Nazi Germany. ‘The tension between the growing German threat on the one hand, and the peace-making, official policy of appeasement on the other, placed the BBC in an almost impossible position’ (p. 27). Remarkably, as late as early 1939, the network was fending off charges of being ‘alarmist, sensational, and rumour-mongering’, as regards the threat from Germany. Like so many conventions and traditions, the BBC’s Arnoldian notions of culture and its reluctance to develop a full complement of news-gathering reporters, were confronted by the unprecedented urgency of the Second World War.

Chignell tracks News and Talks through the next several decades, measuring the effect of ‘personal, institutional and cultural’ forces on their separate, but linked, evolution into the modern versions we know today. Chignell’s attention to the personal forces that shaped the news and commentary of the BBC – and later, of local, independent, and commercial broadcasters – is deftly woven into the larger institutional and cultural context. In this way, we come to know the people behind the programming as actors working within the constraints and opportunities of their place and time.

Readers unfamiliar with the dramatis personae of the BBC will be struck by the remarkable number of women, starting with Hilda Matheson, in critically important roles both in front of and behind the microphones of the BBC’s public affairs programming. Matheson, chosen by Reith to be the first Director of Talks in the 1920s, epitomized the tension between cultural elitism and political radicalism that characterized the early years of the network’s news and commentary. ‘A political radical, a lesbian and a feminist’, Matheson was also spectacularly well connected to Britain’s literary elite, including Virginia Woolf, E. M. Forster, and Wells, and brought them before the BBC’s microphones. It was Matheson who brought the ‘intimate mode of address’ to the BBC airwaves, supplanting the previous formal, declamatory style.

As the book moves chronologically through the 20th century, other key figures appear. Sir Richard Maconachie, who ran the Talks Department after the split of talks and news in 1936, was another key figure in the evolution of the network’s coverage of important public affairs. His horror of controversy and of the appearance of bias, along with his disdain for journalism, (all of which put him in the mainstream of the network at the time), led him to the novel solution of broadcasting interviews with newsmakers. The interview provided a way of handling potentially controversial subjects, while shaping the future direction of the BBC’s coverage of news and public affairs for decades to come (p. 19).

J. B. Priestley, the popular novelist, playwright, and Second World War broadcaster also makes an appearance in these pages, though it is the import of his radio talks ‘as radio’ that draws Chignell’s attention (p. 43). Priestly is to be remembered above all for ‘the sound of his voice’, the intimacy of his tone, and his ‘soft Yorkshire accent, unusual of course in a BBC still dominated by southern middle-class accents’ (p. 45). To an American historian of radio, the description of Priestley’s contributions to wartime British radio on Postscripts in 1940 and 1941 evokes nothing so much as the short-lived wartime broadcasts of Eleanor Roosevelt. In particular, Priestley’s political priorities evoke the 1940–1, Pan-American Coffee Hour broadcasts of Mrs. Roosevelt, with their emphasis on the importance of ‘the people’ in national life, the looking forward to a more just post-war society, and the linking of the struggle against the Germans to the larger struggle ‘to bring into existence an order of society in which nobody will have far too many rooms in a house and nobody have far too few’ (p. 47). There are some striking stylistic similarities as well, including the use of personal pronouns, (‘I wonder how many of you feel as I do’) and the easy movement back and forth from descriptions of war (‘a sky belching death’) to the quotidian pleasures of the home front (‘the red japonica or the cherry and almond blossom’). Eleanor Roosevelt’s wartime radio career was cut short too, a victim of political foes in Congress, parallel to Priestley, who saw his regular gig on Postscripts cut short in 1941 by Churchill, or so he believed(46–7).

The account of Priestly’s unique contribution to the sound of the BBC serves as an excellent introduction to the remarkable transformation of the network during the war. Despite a rocky start, the BBC’s reputation for news coverage was, by the end of the war, ‘covered in glory.’ The close identification between the network and Great Britain intensified during the conflict, as wartime censorship narrowed the gap between the national interest and the BBC’s understanding of the public interest. During the worst of the crisis, the fortunes of the network seemed inextricable from those of the nation itself. Its coverage of D-Day, for instance, presented a challenge as daunting, in radio terms, as the invasion was in military terms. By the final year of the conflict, the BBC was the medium by which Britons came to understand the war.

Massive growth in the news staff and structural changes to the network were instrumental in this transformation. From just two reporters before the war to the 19 who covered the D-Day landing, to the new recording technology, including portable disc recorders, the BBC invested heavily in the infrastructure of news. Under A. P. Ryan, a News Division was created that merged the older Talks and News and reflected the new urgency of informing the public rather than the older Reithian imperatives of ‘mixed programming’, and ‘uplift’ (p. 49). Chignell identifies other changes, including the rise of ‘radio magazine’ formats, which would come to dominate the daytime schedule for many years. Also, the ‘personalization’ of the news, starting with Priestly’s commentaries, expanded to news presenters, in the name of national security:

In the pre-war BBC, it was an article of faith that news announcers should all sound the same and remain anonymous. But anxiety over the risk of enemy impersonators taking over the airwaves led to news announces identifying themselves … This identification allowed for greater intimacy between listener and the announcer although it was of course true that they all sounded the same (p. 53).

The chronological structure of the book affords Chignell an opportunity to characterize the big changes in radio formats, BBC departmental organization, and historical events that compel changes in coverage. But it also tends toward oversimplification, especially in the later chapters, which are organized around a single decade and single theme: decline in the post-war era, reinvention in the 60s, uncertainty in the 90s, and so forth. While these themes are often borne out in the excellent close readings of specific programs and presenters, they also have a tendency to narrow the complexity of influences – personal, institutional, and cultural – bearing on the changes being wrought in radio news and current affairs. In fact, the chapters themselves often speak to this complexity, even at the cost of staying true to the theme and time period of the chapter title.

This ‘schematic account’, as Chignell calls it, does usefully provide signal moments or historical ‘examinations’ for the utility of various formats and approaches to the news and current affairs.

The radio talk had its greatest examination, and its moment of glory, in the wartime radio talks of J. B. Priestly. Much later in the century, Radio Four’s Analysis was tested by the rise of neoliberalism, and for At Home and Abroad there was the greatest debacle of British foreign policy of the twentieth Century, Suez (p. 72).

The crisis over the Suez Canal helped to bring about the end of the ‘notorious Fourteen Day Rule, which prohibited the coverage of issues due to be debated in parliament in the following fortnight’ (p. 60). It took real historical crises, and the imperative to cover them, to jettison the decades-old traditions and hesitancy that hampered the BBC’s development into a first-rate news broadcasting organization. The return of the old division between News and Talks post-war, and the exceeding caution and aversion to controversy of the Tahu Hole era, is characterized as a period of ‘decline’, which gives way, by the 1960s, to an era of ‘reinvention’.

The 1970s, dubbed here ‘The critical decade’, bring us another key figure, and another of the powerful women who shaped the BBC during key moments of transformation in the network and in Britain at large. Mary Goldring, the Thatcheresque – and perhaps Thatcherite – presenter, then lead presenter, of the current affairs program Analysis, epitomizes the seriousness of this era in current affairs programming. Goldring, who Chignell calls ‘arguably the finest public affairs presenter of her generation,’ helped to bring ‘rigour’ to the BBC airwaves in the late 1970s and early 1980s, along with a didactic tone and a hostility toward unions, that seemed to evoke the Iron Lady herself. As with her predecessor at Analysis, Ian McIntyre, Goldring was granted latitude for her editorializing in part because of the high regard in which her intellect was held, a ironic echo of the latitude granted to Matheson’s left-leaning commentators of an earlier era, itself an echo of the Victorian hierarchy, which granted the privilege of ‘subjectivity’ to the elite correspondent but not to the workaday journalist.

The last decades of the 20th century gave rise to a whole welter of precedent-shattering experimentation and fragmentation, as commercial stations, and Independent Local Radio, in particular, would introduce new sounds to the news and current affairs airwaves in Britain, even as it put pressure on the BBC to innovate and reorganize in order to remain relevant. While these more recent changes will be more familiar to Britons than the earlier history, Chignell still manages to provide some provocative challenges to received wisdom: ‘Almost every significant change in the practice of radio news gathering in the final quarter of the last century was pioneered at LBC’. Such changes include ‘radio phone-ins, vox pops, rolling news, the radio telephone reportage, airborne traffic reports and parliamentary broadcasting’. Here, the influence on British broadcasting from overseas, the US in particular, might have been given more than the few mentions it receives.

Public Issue Radio: Talks, News and Current Affairs in the Twentieth Century tells an important story about the development of the world’s most famous cultural institution. And it tells it in a highly readable way, linking the institution’s transformations to the turbulence of the century in which it developed and which it was obliged to understand and explain to Britons and, to some extent, the rest of the world. It is a worthy addition to the growing shelf of recent work on the cultural import of the BBC, including David Hendy’s Life on Air: A History of Radio Four, and Michele Hilmes’ Network Nations: A Transnational History of British and American Broadcasting.

Notes

David Hendy, Life on Air: A History of Radio Four (Oxford, 2007); Michele Hilmes, Network Nations: A Transnational History of British and American Broadcasting (London, 2011).

Reviewer: Professor Jason Loviglio, University of Maryland, Baltimore County

Citation:Professor Jason Loviglio, review of Public Issue Radio: Talks, News and Current Affairs in the Twentieth Century, (review no. 1219)
URL: http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1219

 

What is Radio? Exploring the past, present, and future of radio

WhatIsRadio

UNIVERSITY OF OREGON IN PORTLAND, OREGON

APRIL 25-27, 2013

What is Radio? Exploring the past, present, and future of radio, the conference will feature a unique coalescing of radio professionals, media scholars and students, government and community officials, as well as interested community groups and the public. The event will feature keynote speakers, roundtables, paper presentations, and other events, in an attempt to answer questions about the changing nature of radio.

University of Oregon School of Journalism and Communication’s Johnston Lecture Series

The conference begins on Thursday, April 25, with the University of Oregon School of Journalism and Communication’s Johnston Lecture Series. The Johnston Lecture brings professionals to the school for campus lectures, workshops, and discussions with students, faculty members, and members of the community. It honors Dick Johnston, a gifted magazine editor, writer, and war correspondent who devoted himself to high-quality journalism. The project was made possible with generous gifts from his widow, Laurie; George E. Jones of U.S. News and World Report; and the Correspondents Fund.

Read more

Trensistor, à Lyon, le 29 mars prochain, « Avoir 20 ans sur les ondes »

dessin_violaine La Journée de la radio : 2ème édition : « Avoir 20 ans sur les ondes »

À l’Ecole Normale Supérieur (ENS) de Lyon comme sur beaucoup d’autres campus, non seulement on écoute la radio, mais on en fait. C’est pour cette raison que la Journée de la radio y est née, pour ça aussi que le thème de la 2ème édition est « Avoir 20 ans sur les ondes ». Les émissions, les conférences et les ateliers radio seront l’occasion de différentes approches des rapports entre radio et jeunesses : de quels publics s’agit-il ? Comment les étudiants font-ils de la radio ? Qu’est-ce qu’une radio « jeune » ? L’exposition, inaugurée le 12 mars 2013, s’empare elle aussi de ces questions à travers deux types d’approche : l’une historique et l’autre artistique.

Le rendez-vous a été pris le 22 mars 2012 : « à l’année prochaine, pour la deuxième édition ! ». Trensistor tiendra sa promesse le 29 mars prochain, accompagné de nouveaux partenaires. Si l’événement grandit, l’intention reste la même : organiser une rencontre consacrée à la réflexion, la pratique et la création radiophoniques. Car ce média mérite qu’on y prête l’oreille : léger, simple et généreux, il accompagne chacune de nos années sans prendre une ride.

Le GRER est partenaire de cette rencontre.

Retrouvez toutes les informations et le programme sur  le site de l’événement

Médiamétrie : Les femmes moins consommatrices de radio que les hommes

LogoRadioactumedia_metrie

Un article de Thibault Leroi dans RADIOACTU. À l’occasion de la Journée de la Femme ce vendredi 8 mars, Médiamétrie s’est penchée sur les pratiques médias et loisirs numériques des femmes. Premier constat : les femmes écoutent moins et moins longtemps la radio que les hommes et préfèrent les stations musicales. Elles écoutent la radio 2h47 par jour. Les femmes sont par ailleurs de plus grosses consommatrices de télévision que les hommes, et fréquentent davantage et plus longtemps les réseaux sociaux que les hommes. Principaux indicateurs à découvrir sur RadioActu.

Médiamétrie s’est penchée sur les pratiques médias et losirs numériques des femmes, à l’occasion de la Journée de la Femme, ce vendredi 8 mars. Les femmes consacrent moins de temps aux taches ménagères et disposent donc de davantage de temps libres pour les loisirs et la consommation des médias en particulier. Selon l’INSEE, en 25 ans, les femmes ont gagné une heure par jour sur le ménage et les courses, tandis que leurs temps libre quotidien est de presque 4 heures par jour. Concernant les médias, les femmes sont moins consommatrices de radio que les hommes, qu’elles écoutent moins et moins longtemps. En moyenne, 78,5% des femmes écoutent la radio, alors que cette pénétration atteint 86,5% chez les hommes. Autre constat : sur la période novembre-décembre 2012, elles ont écouté la radio en moyenne 2h47 par jour contre 3h09 pour les hommes. Concernant les programmes, les femmes privilégient les stations musicales par rapport aux stations généralistes. Le pic de l’audience radio se situe pour les femmes comme pour l’ensemble des français de 13 ans aux alentours de 8h le matin, mais écoutent davantage de musique après 16h.

La suite sur RadioActu

femmes_medias

“On prenait Londres tous les soirs…”

PhonothèqueTémoignages sur les usages de la radio dans les années 1930 et 1940

Les entretiens de terrain témoignent souvent de pratiques ou d’usages culturels qui ne sont pas toujours les objets d’enquêtes des chercheurs qui les ont enregistrés. Ainsi la radio apparaît régulièrement dans les récits des années 1930-1945, témoignage d’un medium qui diffuse parfois des informations cruciales difficiles à obtenir par d’autres biais ou propose des divertissements. Présentation passionnante d’une série d’extraits sonores sur le Carnet de recherche de la Phonotèque

“Es urgente fomentar nuevas investigaciones sobre la radio”

13 de Febrero de 2013, Jornada Mundial de la Radio

EL GRUPO GRER HACE UNA LLAMADA

PARA APOYAR A LA INVESTIGACIÓN

“Es urgente fomentar nuevas investigaciones sobre la radio”. Con motivo de la Primera Jornada Mundial de la Radio, a iniciativa de la UNESCO, el 13 de febrero de 2013, GRER (Grupo de Investigaciones y Estudios sobre la Radio) desea apoyar la iniciativa de la UNESCO. Una acción que continuará más allá del día de hoy. GRER recalca la importancia mundial de este medio, siempre utilizado mayoritariamente por todo el mundo e interpela a las autoridades competentes a apoyar la investigación con el fin de que apoyen la actual renovación de los estudios sobre el medio radiofónico.

GRER es una asociación de origen francés, pero de ámbito internacional, que acoge a un centenar de investigadores de lengua francesa especializados en los estudios sobre la Radio. Fue fundado a iniciativa del Catedrático Jean Jacques Cheval (Université Montaigne-Bordeaux 3), GRER no ha dejado de aumentar su fuerza de trabajo en los últimos años. Esta argumentación demuestra el interés creciente de millares de universitarios y científicos por el estudio de la radio.

Contrariamente a la idea extendida recientemente, la radiodifusión no es un medio desfasado y no se puede decir que sus “años de gloria” hayan sido únicamente la década de los 30 a los 50. Todo lo contrario: la radio se ha convertido en una plataforma y las recientes evoluciones tecnológicas inscriben a este medio al comienzo de una nueva era donde debiera enfocarse de manera crítica y no utilitarista, enfocado a temas socio-políticos y económicos, pero también simbólicos y culturales.

Parece como primera urgencia que las nuevas corrientes de investigación concernientes a la radio sean hoy ampliamente apoyadas por las autoridades competentes, con el fin de no dejar el futuro de este medio solamente en manos de grandes grupos de comunicación e industrias, así lo ha declarado el actual presidente del Grupo GRER, el Profesor Fréderic Antoine (Université de Louvain-la-Neuve, Bélgica). En este marco, GRER no puede más que apoyar y recomendar las iniciativas señaladas por la Primera Jornada Mundial de la Radio de la UNESCO y, en particular, resaltar todo lo que supone esta acción con el desarrollo de la investigación radiofónica.

El Grupo GRER, organizador de numerosos coloquios y manifestaciones científicas, responsable de la publicación de diferentes obras, desarrollará un “cuaderno de investigaciones” online sobre la Radio, para después editar una revista científica sobre los estudios radiofónicos, que estará accesible y de forma gratuita en Internet.

En este sentido, con la intención de revalorizar los estudios radiofónicos, GRER pide a todas las personas e investigadores e investigadoras interesadas por estos medios que apoyen y favorezcan el desarrollo y futuro de la radio.

Para apoyar estas manifestaciones se puede visitar la página Factbook del Grupo GRER (https://www.facebook.com/greradio) o por mail (grer.mail@club-internet.fr)

Frédéric Antoine, Président du GRER ( frederic.antoine@uclouvain.be )

“We urgently want to encourage new radio research”

13 FEBRUARY 2013, WORLD RADIO DAY

GRER LAUNCHES A CALL FOR SUPPORT FOR RESEARCH

   « Encouraging new research into radio is urgent. » On the occasion of the first World Radio Day, a UNESCO initiative, on 13 February 2013, GRER (Groupe de Recherches et d’Études sur la Radio) wishes to recognise and support the UNESCO initiative. Through its action from this day forward, GRER wishes to remind the world of the importance of this medium, still the most widely-used in the world, and calls on the research support institutions to respond to this reassertion of the need for research into the medium of radio.

GRER is an association which originated in France but became international, which unites a collection of around a hundred specialised researchers working in the French language on studies into the medium of radio. Founded on the initiative of Professor Jean-Jacques Cheval (Université Montaigne – Bordeaux 3), GRER has not ceased to see its efforts bear fruit over the years. This growth in activity demonstrates the growing interest among the university and scientific communities in studies of radio.
In effect, contrary to a long-established notion, radio broadcasting is not an old-fashioned medium, and not all that there is to say about it has been said since its so-called ‘golden age’ from the 1930s to the 1950s. On the contrary: radio has become adaptable, and recent technological evolution now positions this medium on the brink of of a new era in which it is important to understand, in a critical and non-utilitarian way, the socio-political and economic stakes involved, as well as those which are symbolic and cultural.
« So it seems to be of the utmost urgency that the latest trends in radio research should be seriously supported by the appropriate authorities, so as not to leave the future of this medium in the sole hands of industry and big business, » declared the current President of GRER, Professor Frédéric Antoine (Université de Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgique). « Because of this, GRER could not fail to support and encourage the initiative taken in the form of the first UNESCO World Radio Day, and in particular everything relating to the development of research into radio. »
As the catalyst for numerous conferences and academic presentations, and the force behind several publications, GRER intends to increase its efforts very soon by publishing on-line a ‘research dossier’ on radio, then by publishing a scientific journal about radio studies, which will be freely accessible on the Internet.
In support of this work to revalidate radio research, GRER requests everyone – and particularly researchers – who are interested in this medium and its future to offer their support and to participate.

Expressions of support can be made via the GRER Facebook page ( https://www.facebook.com/greradio ) or by email ( grer.mail@club-internet.fr )

Frédéric Antoine, President of GRER ( frederic.antoine@uclouvain.be )

 

Journée Mondiale de la Radio, 13 février 2013

La Conférence générale de l’UNESCO, lors de sa 36ème session, proclame la Journée mondiale de la radio le 13 février.

Le Conseil exécutif de l’UNESCO a recommandé à la Conférence générale de proclamer la Journée mondiale de la radio, en s’appuyant sur une étude de faisabilité réalisée par l’UNESCO suite à une proposition de l’Espagne.

Le 13 février nous fêtons la Journée mondiale de la radio — une journée pour rendre hommage à la radio en tant que moyen de communication ; améliorer la collaboration entre les diffuseurs et encourager aussi bien les grands médias que les radios communautaires à s’engager pour l’accès à l’information et la liberté d’expression sur les ondes. Alors que la radio continue d’évoluer dans notre ère numérique, c’est encore le media qui permet d’atteindre l’audience la plus large au niveau mondial. La radio avec ses multiples fonctions peut aider les personnes, jeunes inclus, à engager la conversation sur des sujets qui les touchent. Elle peut sauver des vies en cas de catastrophes naturelles ou d’origine humaine, et fournit aux journalistes une plateforme où ils peuvent s’exprimer et rapporter l’information. L’UNESCO encourage les pays du monde entier à célébrer la Journée mondiale de la radio par des activités réalisées en collaboration avec les diffuseurs régionaux, nationaux et internationaux, les organisations gouvernementales et non gouvernementales, les médias et le grand public. À l’intérieur de ces pages web, vous trouverez toutes les ressources nécessaires à la préparation de votre activité pour la Journée mondiale de la radio, gratuitement et sans restriction de droits d’auteur.

Fêtons ensemble la Journée mondiale de la radio !

Pour plus d’informations …

 

Journée d’études “Les webradios associatives et communautaires »

 Journée d’études

Les Webradios associatives et communautaires : des médias alternatifs participatifs,

état des lieux, enjeux et perspectives”

Université François Rabelais – Site Tanneurs,

Tours le 14 Janvier 2012

Journée organisée par le GRER en collaboration avec l’équipe de recherche universitaire COST du CITERES -UMR 7324 (Centre Interdisciplinaire Cités, Territoires, Environnement et Sociétés) de l’Université François Rabelais de Tours.

Cette journée d’étude avait pour ambition d’apporter un éclairage et des témoignages sur l’apport des technologies du web dans la sphère radiophonique, tant sur le plan de la diffusion (captation de nouveaux auditeurs), des modes d’écriture et de création sonores (expérimentations de nouveaux formats, apport du multimédia, contributions des auditeurs, etc.), que des modes de conservation et d’utilisation des contenus sonores (podcasting, partage, rediffusion, etc.). Ces nouveaux médias on-line contribuent-ils à l’émergence de nouvelles formes d’expression citoyenne, de participation et d’appropriation sociale de l’espace public médiatique ? Les regards croisés de chercheurs et professionnels de ces radios nous apporterons quelques réponses et pistes de réflexion autour de cette question. Cette journée d’étude s’est appuyée sur des exemples concrets, des extraits sonores, permettant d’illustrer l’intérêt et l’apport des webradios en tant que médias d’expression libre et participatifs. 

cf.Présentation et programme

Nous mettons à votre disposition les enregistrements audio des communications des intervenants et des discussions engagées lors de cette journée

Allocution d’ouverture de la journée

En guise d’introduction : regards  sur l’actualité des webradios alternatives

  • Albino PEDROIA (Consultant IT Media, Institut d’Etudes Politiques de Paris, GRER) – télécharger (mp3)

Chiffres clefs des audiences des webradios et du podcasting en France

  • Laurent GAGO (Docteur en Sciences de l’Information et de la Communication, Université de Paris 3 – Sorbonne Nouvelle, CIM, GRER)

Dispositifs sonores numériques et modalités d’usages des publics

  • Dominique NORBIER (Consultante en Management de l’Innovation, Docteur en Sciences Economiques, Université de Nice Sophia Antipolis) – télécharger (mp3)

Les webradios acteurs de mobilisation et de participation sociale: le cas de Radio Ethic

  • Maria HOLUBOWICZ (MCF en SIC,Institut de la Communication et des Médias – Grenoble 3, GRESEC ) – télécharger (mp3)

Les radios associatives à l’ère des webradios : l’exemple grenoblois

  • Raffaello ARES DORO (Doctorant en Histoire et SIC, Cotutelle Università della TUSCIA Viterbe et Université Paris 2, labo DISTU)  télécharger (mp3)

Le rôle joué par Radio GAP (Global Audio Project) dans les journées du G8 de Gênes en juillet 2001

Thèses soutenues et en préparation

Les récentes recherches doctorales menées au sein des universités françaises sur la radio se rattachent majoritairement à trois grandes disciplines : Sciences de l’information et de la communication, Sciences du langage et Musique et musicologie. D’autres recherches envisagent la radio de point de vue historique et selon une approche sociologique.

A partir du portail des thèses (www.theses.fr) nous proposons un aperçu des recherches soutenues et en cours de préparation sur la radio (auteur de la thèse, directeur, titre, discipline, université et résumé) durant cette dernière décennie.

A consulter Recherches doctorales sur la radio(2008-2014)

Appel à Communication ECREA Radio Research Section Conference, LONDON 11-13 September 2013

Conference Call for Papers RADIO RESEARCH 2013

Radio, the resilient medium.

11-13 September 2013, London, UK

    The next conference of the Radio Research Section of ECREA will be held at the LONDON campus of the University of Sunderland, from 11-13 September 2013. The venue is a bright, modern building with excellent lecture theatres and seminar rooms for plenary and panel sessions. There, the Gateway provides a pleasant and relaxing yet stimulating conference ‘hub’ for registration, refreshment, networking and communication. The campus is located two minutes walk from the South Quay station on the Docklands Light Railway (DLR), which is just 15 minutes from Bank station and the rest of the London Underground network. There are a wide range of hotels, restaurants and bars within easy travelling distance to suit every budget, and South Quay is just seven minutes from the historical and cultural site of the former seagoing vessel Cutty Sark, now located in Greenwich beside the Royal Observatory and the River Thames.

 Conference theme

   Radio is a resilient medium. As in different countries around the world celebrations have already begun to mark the ninetieth anniversaries of the first regular domestic radio services, predictions of its demise have so far been proven wrong. Again, dire warnings have suggested that radio is an ‘old’ medium which cannot withstand the increased competition from ‘new’ media that advances in technology have brought. Radio transmission remains overwhelmingly analogue in a world where digital switchover of television preoccupies many governments and audiences alike.

   Radio Research 2013 aims to explore the many ways in which the medium of radio is proving once again to be resilient in ways which could not have been predicted even a short time ago. In some markets, radio listening is being recorded at record levels, partly due to its relatively recent emergence on a wide variety of new and established platforms, such as social networking sites, mobile phones, tablets, the internet and television EPGs. Production practices are now firmly situated in the digital domain, and producers benefit from greater studio-quality access to a wider variety of contributors and locations. Economic and corporate pressures are disrupting old certainties about the provenance of programming, as local stations become quasi-national ones. New forms of user-generated content appear in traditional radio genres, while à la carte and diasporic listening brings remote and specialised radio stations to international audiences where once only medium and short wave transmissions significantly disrupted geographical, political and socio-economic boundaries to the dissemination of news and information and to human cultural interaction.

    Out of change has emerged a new confidence, but also new uncertainties. What, now, is radio, and at what point might multi-platform radio content simply cease to be radio because listening is no longer dependant on Hertzian transmissions or the use of a radio receiver? Should we evolve into ‘audio researchers’? And what of ‘blindness’? At Radio Research 2013 there is much to be problematised.

 Submissions

    We welcome submissions which are broadly related to the central theme of the conference, the resilience of radio in an increasingly multi-platform digital age. Relevant topics might include: radio genres; radio audiences; radio technologies; production practices; radio journalism; distribution technologies; ownership, regulation and governance of radio; histories and historiographies of radio; radio and multi-platform delivery; radio and parallel visual and textual content; radio futures; redefining radio content on new platforms; radio pedagogies.

    It is NOT necessary to be a member of the Radio Research Section of ECREA in order to participate in the conference, however ECREA members will be encouraged to join the section.

    It is NOT necessary to be a member of ECREA in order to participate, although a substantial discount of the registration fee will apply to ECREA members.

   Presentations should normally take the form of posters or 15-minute papers. For posters and individual papers, please submit a 250-word abstract, as well as a short biographical note of up to 100 words.

    We also welcome proposals for workshops or panels. For panel and workshop proposals, please provide a brief outline of the session’s aims, together with abstracts and biographical notes for each speaker and for the proposed panel chair.

     Please bear in mind that the main language of the conference is English, but that contributions should be easily understood by as wide an audience as possible. You might consider presenting in one language and showing text on a PowerPoint in another.

   All  proposals should be emailed as a Word document to the organisers at radioresearch2013@sunderland.ac.

   by the deadline of Friday 8th March 2013 (18:00 hours Greenwich Mean Time).

All proposals will be acknowledged and then blind peer-reviewed by the conference scientific committee. Final decisions will be communicated to proposers personally no later than 29 March 2013.

Further information

For the latest information about keynote speakers, the programme and the venue please visit the conference website at :

http://radioresearch2013.sunderland.ac.uk/

We look forward to welcoming as many Radio Research Section members, other members of ECREA, and other scholars of radio as possible in LONDON in September.

Guy Starkey, Madalena Oliveira, Grazyna Stachyra

Chair and Vice Chairs, ECREA Radio Research Section

radioresearch2013@sunderland.ac.uk

 

La radio au défi de la Guerre froide, Fribourg (Suisse), 9 février 2013



Conflit global et idéologique, la Guerre froide requiert des moyens de propagande inédits pour promouvoir sur une large échelle des modèles politiques, économiques, culturels et religieux. Les praticiens se rendent vite compte de la nécessité d’adapter les messages en fonction de contextes locaux. C’est particulièrement le cas de Radio Free Europe (RFE) à l’égard des pays du bloc de l’Est, et de sa consoeur Radio Liberty (RL) à l’égard de l’URSS. Des changements de stratégie s’opèrent au sein de la direction et des rédactions, où se côtoie du personnel américain, ouest-européen et émigré aux vues parfois très divergentes. Ces recompositions ont des répercussions sur l’élaboration du message à diffuser. Celui-ci se situe ainsi en tension entre les impératifs du conflit Est-Ouest et les réalités et besoins locaux, que la direction des radios essaie de sonder en développant des outils d’analyse.

L’objectif de ce panel est de croiser les approches sur ce média. RFE/RL constituent un cas d’école mais des études sur d’autres radios internationales sont souhaitables pour comparer les conditions de diffusion, le message transmis et la réception. Ces trois dimensions, qui s’articulent autour d’un axe local et d’un axe transnational, seront traitées dans les contributions déjà annoncées. La perspective pourrait être prolongée par des exposés prenant en compte la dimension Nord-Sud, par exemple à travers l’histoire encore trop peu connue des radios internationales en Afrique ou de Radio Free Asia.

Ce panel permettra de questionner le phénomène de globalisation médiatique en considérant les différents terrains culturels et politiques dans lesquels il s’ancre, et qui ne sont pas sans influencer la structuration de ces médias. L’évolution ne se résume donc pas à un transfert à sens unique du global vers le local, mais témoigne d’un échange entre processus globaux et manifestations locales.

http://www.geschichtstage.ch/panel/99/la-radio-au-dfi-de-la-guerre-froide–organisation-locale-et-diffusion-globale

Carnet du Groupe de recherches et d’études sur la radio (GRER)